PCOS: Symptoms, Causes, Disorders & Treatment

                                 What is PCOS?
PCOS is a “syndrome,” or cluster of symptoms that concern the ovaries and ovulation. 

 Polycystic ovary syndrome(PCOS) as the name suggests it involves polycystic ovaries. So ovaries with multiple cysts and you can actually see this on an ultrasound of a patient’s ovaries.

You can actually see these like black little holes that look like black holes they’re actually cysts within the ovary. 

PCOS is a question with hormones that affect females during their parturition years (old age 15 to 44).

 The ovaries also produce a meaningful amount of man hormones exhort androgens

The ovaries let go ovum to be fertilized by a man’s sperm cell.



Symptoms of PCOS:

 Many females with PCOS have overweight or obese, which can suit lodge apnea. Italian doctor Antonio Vallisneri first delineate its symptoms in 1721.

  • Overweight
  • Irregular periods
  • Pelvic pain
  • Mood changes
  • Trouble in getting sleep
  • Acne
  • Difficult in getting pregnant
  • Fatigue
  • Facial hair and excessive body hair
  • Heavy periods
  • Excessive androgen hormones

 Polycystic ovary concurrence (PCOS) affects up to almost 27 percent of females during their parturition forever.

 High exasperate squeezing is a controlling cause of heart affection and stroke. Sleep apnea

Causes of PCOS

PCOS is one of the directing purposes of infertility in women. Metabolic syndrome to 80 percent of ladies with PCOS is overweight or fleshy.

 Sleep apnea raises your hazard of heart complaints and diabetes.

Hirsutism is actually just a growth of hair so these patients oftentimes will grow or have more terminal hair growth so you get this kind of darker hair growing particularly on their face or on other parts of their body.

Another one is actually PCOS hair loss so it’s almost a kind of a male pattern hair loss due to high levels of androgens now what is the incidence of this syndrome well the incidence is quite alarming it’s actually one of the most common endocrine operatives in women and typically about six points five to eight percent of women are affected with this syndrome.

The medical conditions that are highly associated with polycystic ovary syndrome. Well first off approximately forty to eighty-five percent of women with polycystic ovary syndrome are overweight or obese. So there’s oftentimes a connection between BMI and polycystic ovary syndrome, so this leads us to a list of conditions that are associated with Oh overweight and obesity itself such as type 2 diabetes.

So women with pauses over syndrome typically have an increased risk of type 2 diabetes again. This follows in line with glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. They also are dis lipedema k– which again follows insulin resistance and because they are at a higher risk of over being overweight or obese. 

Doctors don’t know the exact cause of PCOS it could be genetic also like if your mother had PCOS before the daughter may face this difficulty.

 After the proper treatment, only doctors can predict the exact cause of PCOS. 

It could also relate to the problem with insulin which makes the body in your ovaries release an egg.

 Premature Adrenal Archy now adrenal Archy is the start or the commencement of the adrenal glands to produce androgens.

So during childhood people typically produce some amounts of androgens very low amounts per particularly low amounts. But individuals that have a premature at drain Erkki seem to be at a higher risk of polycystic ovary syndrome. 

People with first-degree relatives that have polycystic ovary syndrome are at a higher risk of getting it themselves and now this lends credence to possible genetic influences so a lot of these may be the cause of polycystic ovary syndrome.

Hormones and PCOS

 Estrogen and progesterone hormones straightforward are gloominess than wanted, while androgen just is higher than usual.

Another condition that’s very associated with insulin resistance in obesity is non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and women with polycystic ovary syndrome have a higher incidence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

You can see here that on the left that’s a normal liver on the left but on the right is a fatty liver and you can see there’s a lot of lipid droplets within the liver there again a lot of these women also are also suffer from depression and anxiety.

As I mentioned before they have menstrual irregularity they can often have in anovulatory infertility so if you’re a menorah cure typically have something known as anovulatory infertility so they actually don’t ovulate properly.

They become infertile as a result another one is endometrial hyperplasia now endometrial hyperplasia is just in overgrowth or excessive growth of the endometrium within the uterus.

This also leads to an increased risk of endometrial cancer because of hyperplasia now moving on to some of the etiology and pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome.

 To begin that ideology is unclear it’s hasn’t really been elucidated at present however although the etiology is unclear it is known that certain individuals are at a higher risk of polycystic ovary syndrome.

 Extra evil hormones severed the catamenial cycle, so females with PCOS get fewer periods than general.

PCOS isn’t a new arrangement. Problems with ovulation, obesity, insulin resistance, and DM (all common in women with PCOS) increment the risk of developing neoplasia of the endometrium (lining of the womb or literary). 

Women whom Mr.’t ovulate regularly assume release as many incite to be fertilized. High lineage compression. 

The endanger for numb asphyxia is 5 to 10 set higher in obese females with PCOS than in those without PCOS.

 Endometrial cancer during ovulation, the womb ruling sheds. Many women with PCOS end up experiencing depression and anxiety.

 Hormone imbalances can assume a carline’s euphoria in many ways. 

High cholesterol leaves you in danger of temperament disease and stroke.

 In one ponder, up to 70 percent of women with PCOS hadn’t been diagnosed.

PCOS operates a fair’s ovaries, the reproductive organs that produce estrogen and progesterone — hormones that regulate the monthly calendar. 

More than half of ladies with PCOS will have diabetes or prediabetes (grape sugar impatience) before the period of 40.4. 

Depression and disquiet are threadbare among females with PCOS. The discharge of an egg on each moon is convoking ovulation.

PCOS Protein Hormones:

 There is some genetic influence with regards to polycystic ovary syndrome and that kind of leads into the pathogenesis and indeed there have been multiple studies showing that there is some genetic trait involved.
There do appear to be environmental factors that influence the onset of the phenotype of the polycystic ovary syndrome some studies have shown that perhaps there’s there are certain genes on chromosome 2 or chromosome 9 here’s a handful of different genes or proteins that may be involved in polycystic ovary syndrome.
One is luteinizing hormone receptor another one is human chorionic gonadotropin receptor the other one is called FATA another one is androgen receptor another one is sex hormone-binding globulin another one is den mad domain-containing protein 1a and the last one again is insulin so there still could be some issue with insulin or insulin signaling that’s predisposing individuals for polycystic ovary syndrome.
Another important thing is that insulin is actually an activator of fecal cell production of androgens so thecal cells are the cells that actually surround a developing follicle within the ovary and insulin actually stimulates the sickle cells to release androgens so again that’s another possible mechanism by which polycystic ovary syndrome causes hyperandrogenism.  

Hormones to produce ovulation

Follicle-exasperate hormone (FSH) 
Luteinizing hormone (LH) 

Touching feeling indisposition and stroke. Between 2.2 and 26.7 percent of women in this old age group have PCOS.

 Many females have PCOS but don’t know it due to unhealthy cholesterol.

Ovulation Disorders

Having a higher-than-average androgen hormone flat can move your fertility and other aspects of your hardiness.
Infertility to gets weighty, you have to ovulate. The instigate never digested enough to trigger ovulation.
 The failure of ovulation changes the horizontal of estrogen, progesterone, FSH, and LH. If you Mr.’t ovulate every month, the grating can construct up. 
A thick womb lining can increase your hazard for endometrial malignancy. 
Depression and anxiety both hormonal changes and symptoms like unwanted haircloth consequences can negatively affect your emotions.
PCOS can advance the wager for barrenness, metabolic concurrence, repose suffocation, endometrial growth, and depression
The message “polycystic” contemptible “many cysts.”These sacs are actively follicles, each one containing an immature egg.

Cardinal shapes:

 Three cardinal shapes are:

 Cysts in the ovaries high steady of boy hormone.
 Irregular or skipped periods in PCOS,
 Many small, fluid-full sacs increase inside the ovaries.

 Depression and disquiet. Women with PCOS often have higher just LDL (hurtful) cholesterol and light even of HDL (good) cholesterol

Both obesity and PCOS extend your jeopardy for high blood sugar, high exasperate squeezing, moderate HDL (“good”) cholesterol, and high LDL (“bad”) cholesterol.

 Together, these factors are called metabolic syndrome, and they increase the hazard for heart sickness, diabetes, and stroke.

 Sleep asphyxia is triter in women who are fat — especially if they also have PCOS. 

Women with PCOS are at better risk of estate exalted blood stamps obtain with ladies of the same old age without PCOS.

 It covers cysts in the ovaries, high levels of hem hormones, and unsystematic periods.

Treatment of PCOS:

There was no significant variation between the patients in the 2 assemblages regarding motorcycle regularity, ovulation, gravidness rate, and abortion cost. 

The first things we like to focus on there some lifestyle changes because as I mentioned before a large number of patients with the syndrome have, are overweight or obese so we like to try to change some of those parameters so we like to get them on a diet or exercise.

The first-impregnate treat for ovulation deduction when productiveness is entreating is clomiphene citrate.

Try to reduce their BMI try to reduce their weight and try to normalize their insulin tolerance and glucose tolerance there are also some pharmacologic treatments as well and this is particularly important for stabilizing the menstrual irregularity.

 Several medications comprehend benzoyl peroxide, local retinoids (Retin-A), and local and oral antibiotics, which are effective for acne treatment.

 Metformin can also be respect in other females with PCOS who are insulin resistant and therefore at venture of developing cardiovascular ailment, even women without type 2 diabetes.

Based on entertainment periods of up to five cycles, the meditation, which involved 750 anovulatory females with PCOS, found that the family rates for letrozole and clomiphene were 27.5% and 19.1%, relatively.

 Drug Treatment Medical management of PCOS is scope at the management of metabolic derangements, anovulation, hirsutism, and catamenial irregularity. 

Some of these combined estrogen-progestin current contraceptives are very effective oral contraceptives that can treat not only the mentor irregularity but also hyperandrogenism something else that’s important is Madrasi progesterone acetate.

You can give this to patients and this is very important for treating and protecting these patients against any endometrial cancer.

As I mentioned before this is so this is not maybe not treating the hyperandrogenism directly but it treats or protects the endometrium from any hyperplasia or cancer metformin.
The rank of innate abnormalities and the jeopardy of pregnancy loss in the letrozole and clomiphene groups were found to be comparable, although the likelihood of part race was lower with letrozole.

 The preventative not only restrain ovarian androgen fruit but also increases persuasion hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) production. 

Second-line strategies may be justly caused in infertile women with clomiphene citrate–resisting PCOS. 

The usefulness of insulin-sensitizing drugs to disapprove insulin sensitivity is combined with a subjection in current androgen levels, as well as improvement in both the ovulation rate and corn sugar tolerance. 

In adjunct to having the possibility to impair gestational DM in gravid women with PCOS, metformin may also reduce the risk of preeclampsia in this population. 

There was an important reduction in crypt-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and the ratio of LH to FSH in the two-side drilling group. 

 Systemic isotretinoin is useful for severe or refractory cases. 

There was a momentous reduction in testosterone, fasting insulin, and the ratio of fasting glucose to tenacious insulin in the metformin/letrozole assemblage.

 ACOG notes that eflornithine in conjunction with optical laser treatment is superior to laser therapy alone in treating hirsutism. 

If symptoms such as hirsutism are not enough mitigated, an androgen-blocking substitute may be added. 

Now for patients that have are not just not getting the effect that they want they’re not seeing you know the changes that they want maybe they still have hirsute hirsutism or bad acne you can give these patients antiandrogens such as Spyer spironolactone and finasteride.

These two drugs can act to inhibit androgen influence and treat some of those hyperandrogenism symptoms such as acne hirsutism and another set of pharmacologic is the genetic open releasing hormone agonists and which can help stabilize the mental cycle as well.

Metformin If the endurant develops typify 2 diabetes mellitus, consider treatment with oral antihyperglycemic drugs, such as metformin

 Pregnancy should be expelled before therapeutics with nuncupatory contraceptives or androgen-blocking agents are started.

 In this muse, 146 patients were given metformin and letrozole, and 73 underwent two-side ovarian drilling.



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